Classification of BP for adults ages 18 and older. Based on JNC7 recommendations.


BP CLASSIFICATION
SBP* MMHG
DBP* MMHG
LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION
NORMAL
< 120
and < 80
Encourage
PREHYPERTENSION
120-139
or 80-89
Yes
STAGE 1 HYPERTENSION
140-159
or 90-99
Yes
STAGE 2 HYPERTENSION
2160
or 2100
Yes
Classification and management of blood pressure for adults.

Lifestyle modifications to manage hypertension.


Modification
Recommendation
Approximate SBP
Reduction (Range)
Weight reduction
Maintain normal body weight (body mass index 18.5−24.9 kg/m2).
5−20 mmHg/10 kg weight loss.
Adopt DASH eating plan (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension).
Consume a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low fat dairy products with a reduced content of saturated and total fat.
8−14 mmHg.
Dietary sodium reduction
Reduce dietary sodium intake to no more than 100 mmol per day (2.4 g sodium or 6 g sodium chloride).
2−8 mmHg
Physical activity
Engage in regular aerobic physical activity such as brisk walking (at least 30 min per day, most days of the week).
4−9 mmHg.
Moderation of alcohol consumption
Limit consumption to no more than 2 drinks (1 oz or 30 mL ethanol e.g. 24 oz beer, 10 oz wine,or 3 oz 80-proof whiskey) per day in most men and to no more than 1 drink per day in women and lighter weight persons.
2−4 mmHg.

ATP III Classification of LDL, Total, and HDL Cholesterol (mg/dL).


Total Cholesterol
< 200
Desirable
200-239
Borderline high
≥240
High
 
LDL Cholesterol
< 100
Optimal
100-129
Near optimal/above optimal
130-159
Borderline high
160-189
High
≥ 190
Very high
 
HDL Cholesterols
< 40
Low
≥ 60
High

Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors and associated disorders for Type 2 diabetes

Modifiable risk factors
  • Overweight and obesity (central and total).
  • Sedentary lifestyle.
  • Previously identified glucose intolerance (IGT and/or IFG).
  • Metabolic syndrome:
    • Hypertension.
    • Decreased HDL cholesterol.
    • Increased trigylcerides.
    • Dietary factors.
    • Intrauterine environment.
    • Inflammation.
Non-modifiable risk factors
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family history of Type 2 diabetes.
  • Age.
  • Gender.
  • History of gestational diabetes.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) suggested blood glucose targets
  • Preprandial − 70-130 mg/dl (3.9-7.2 mmol/l).
  • Postprandial (1-2 hours) - <180 mg/dl (<10.0 mmol/l).
  • HbA1c (three month blood sugar average) − 7.0% or lower.