Some doctors order "tumour markers" in the blood test to detect possible cancer activity in the body. If cancer is present, it will usually produce a specific protein in the blood that can server as a "marker" for the cancer. Tumour markers not necessarily detect all cancers and early warning signs must be diagnosed by your doctors. Imaging tools like the 256-slice DSCT, ultrasound, mammogram, etc. are used together with Tumour Markers for more accuracy in detecting cancers & tumours.


Breast cancer
Yearly mammograms are recommended starting at age 40 and continuing for as long as a woman is in good health.
Colon and rectal cancer
Beginning at age 50, both men and women at average risk for developing colorectal cancer should do a colonoscopy once in every 2 years.
Cervical cancer
PAP smear once a year.
Prostate cancer
Testing of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal exam (DRE) yearly, beginning at age 50.
Lung cancer (for smokers)
CT scan lung about once every 1-2 years.

Ten Most Frequent Cancers in males, Peninsular Malaysia 2006
Ten Most Frequent Cancers in females, Peninsular Malaysia 2006

Diagram showing tumour markers / cancer associated with organs.

Tumour Sites and Relevant Tests

No
Tumor Markers
Possible Cancers
Relevant Tests
1
Ca 19.9
  • Liver
  • Stomach
  • Esophagus
  • Colorectal
  • Prostate
  • Pancreas
  • DSCT Abdomen with contrast
  • Gastroscopy
  • Colonoscopy
2
NSE
  • Lung
  • Pancreas
  • Thyroid
  • DSCT total body scan with contrast
  • Ultrasound thyroid
3
CEA
  • Lung
  • Stomach
  • Colorectal
  • Breast
  • Pancreas
  • Uterus
  • Bladder
  • Thyroid
  • Esophagus
  • DSCT total body scan with contrast
  • Gastroscopy
  • Colonoscopy
  • Mammogram
  • Ultrasound thyroid
4
Ca 242
  • Colorectal
  • Pancreas
  • Stomach
  • Colonoscopy
  • DSCT Abdomen with contrast
  • Gastroscopy
5
Ferritin
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Breast
  • Pancreas
  • DSCT Total Body Scan with contrast
  • Mammogram
6
HCG
  • Ovary
  • Endometrium
  • Lung
  • Esophagus
  • Prostate
  • Breast
  • Pancreas
  • Testicle
  • DSCT total body scan with contrast
  • Gastroscopy
  • Mammogram
  • Ultrasound Testes
7
AFP
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Stomach
  • Esophagus
  • Ovary
  • Pancreas
  • Testes
  • DSCT total body scan with contrast
  • Gastroscopy
  • Ultrasound testes
8
F-PSA / PSA
  • Prostate
  • Endometrium
  • Liver
  • Lungs
  • DSCT total body scan with contrast
  • Ultrasound rectal prostrate
9
Ca 125
  • Ovary
  • Lungs
  • Breast
  • Liver
  • Colorectal
  • Pancreas
  • DSCT total body scan with contrast
  • Mammogram
  • Colonoscopy
10
HGH
  • Pituitary
  • Lung
  • Renal
  • DSCT Brain with contrast
  • DSCT total body scan with contrast
11
Ca 15-3
  • Ovary
  • Lung
  • Colon
  • Pancreas
  • DSCT total body scan with contrast
  • Colonoscopy